Srbi i Hrvati u Senatu Kraljevine Jugoslavije 1932–1941

Momčilo Pavlović, Nebojša Stambolija, SRBI I HRVATI U SENATU KRALJEVINE JUGOSLAVIJE 1932-1941

doi: 10.29362/2237.pav.11-34

Iako je Senat Kraljevine Jugoslavije postojao kratko, formalno deset, a suštinski sedam godina, činjenica da je predstavljao gornji dom Narodnog predstavništva, način izbora i imenovanja senatora, kao i letimičan pogled na njihova imena kazuju nam da se radilo o ljudima koji su imali izuzetan ugled na ličnom, regionalnom ili državnom nivou i predstavljali elitu jugoslovenske međuratne države. Ipak, nedemokratski način nastanka te institucije, jasna namera vladara da kroz nju zadrži kontrolu nad zakonodavnom vlašću, kao i odabir režimu lojalnih ljudi, u početku su uzrokovali njeno neprihvatanje, odnosno bojkot od većine političkih predstavnika hrvatskog naroda. Ovakav odnos prema Senatu se menja tek nakon sporazuma Cvetković-Maček 26. avgusta 1939. godine. Autori u radu rekonstruišu sam nastanak i trajanje ustanove Senata u Kraljevini Jugoslaviji, statistički obrađuju profesionalnu, versku i obrazovnu strukturu senatora i analiziraju polemike na zasedanjima koje se tiču odnosa Srba i Hrvata, kao i stavove senatora o „hrvatskom pitanju“.

Momčilo Pavlović, Nebojša Stambolija, SERBS AND CROATS IN THE SENATE OF THE KINGDOM OF YUGOSLAVIA (1932-1941)

In the political history of the Serbs, the Senate first appeared in 1901 and existed until 1903. It was created as an expression of the will of the ruler and as a product of the so-called. „Octroic Constitution“. After the May coup and the proclamation of King Peter I Karađorđević for the King, the Senate was abolished. The Senate, for the second time, appears as part of the People’s Representation, also as the product of the direct will of the ruler, by the adoption of the „Octroic Constitution“ of 1931. It consisted of elected and appointed senators, set by the ruler. Elections for senators were specific and the right to vote had a very small circle of people – deputies elected as representatives from the territory of a certain banovina, all of the banovina Councilors and all the presidents of the municipalities of individual banovina. Four elections for senators were held: January 3, 1932, February 3, 1935, February 6, 1938, and November 12, 1939. In less than ten years of existence of this institution, there were 226 senators, elected and appointed. Comparing the structure of the senators with the structure of the population of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, according to the census of 1931, it can be concluded that the share of Orthodox senators is greater than the share of the Orthodox population in the country. However, all four presidents were Roman Catholics (three Croats and a Slovene). Regarding the professional structure of the senators, it is even more disproportionate to the population of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, since the representatives of the elite are elected to this home of the Parliament. The most represented occupations were lawyers, judges, industrialists, university professors, doctors and priests. The solution of the „Croatian question“, through the entire existence of the Yugoslav kingdom, has heavily burdened Serbian-Croatian relations. Senate meetings were often a forum for discussing modalities for resolving this issue. This was particularly intensified by the separation of seven Croatian senators to the National Club in February 1933. Their debates with representatives of the Majority Club are an excellent source for exploring the political history of the inter-war Yugoslav state. At the end of March 1939, the last session of the Senate was held, which was, as it turned out, the end of the existence of this institution.